Sunday, March 15, 2020
What Shirk Means in Islam Essays What Shirk Means in Islam Paper What Shirk Means in Islam Paper Tawheed in Islam is very important as it means that believing in one lord and no one else. It is attributing oneness to Allah and describing him as being one and unique as he has no partner in his essence and attributes. However if one doesnt believe in this then he is going against Tawheed and will be classed as not a true Muslim. Believing that Allah is one with no partner or associate in his lordship is known as Tawheed ruboobiyyah. If any disagrees with this statement then they are going against Allahs word which are written in the Quran as he states Say he is Allah, the One and only. This verse clearly shows that Allah is one as he has written it him in the Quran for Muslims, no one should join partners with him nor should they believe in anyone besides him, this is known as shirk. Shirk in linguistic meaning is associating partnership, sharing with someone or associating something with someone however in Islam it refers to associating partners with Allah. There are two type of shirk which are: Shirk Akbar Major Shirk Shirk Asgar Minor Shirk Major shirk in Islam means when an individual ascribe partners with Allah such as saying that he has a son or a family. This can be with his Lordship, divinity or his names and attribute. Allah has told the Muslims in the Quran that he does not forgive anyone who ascribes partners with him in any way, as he states Verily! Allah forgives not setting up partners with Him, but He forgives whom He wills sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin. (2:48). Shirk is classed as worst sin in Islam. Shirk can be also loving someone as they should be loving Allah, and fearing as they should be fearing Allah, or relying upon him, calling upon him, dreading him, hoping in him and having awe of him, trusting in him, or obeying him in disobedience to Allah, or following him in what displeases Allah etc. This type of shirk may sometimes believe that someone else apart from Allah created this universe, maybe gives life and death or having a belief that someone else should be worshipped besides Allah. Whoever believes that then his final abode will be in hellfire as it is stated clearly in the Quran by Allahs words, Verily, whosoever sets up partners with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. (5: 72). Even the Prophet of Allah mentioned in a Hadith that Shirk is never forgiven as he says The greatest sins are polytheism etc (Muslim). The second type of Shirk in Islam is the minor shirk which is everything that will lead an individual to major shirk such as adorning something or believing in fortune telling. Minor shirk has been described by Prophet Muhammad as Shirk in the Muslim nation is more inconspicuous than the creeping of the black ant on a black rock in the pitch darkness of the night. This saying of Prophet explains to the Muslims in a metaphorical way that minor shirk is what will lead the Muslims to major shirk unknowingly. Prophet also said that he feared minor shirk more then any sin as it was the cause of everything. Whoever swears to someone else other then Allah also commits the act of shirk and Kufr (disbelief). Minor shirk can also take the form of actions such as believing in fortune telling and wearing amulets. We as Muslims know this because Prophet said whoever goes towards fortune-teller and believes in his story, his prays will not be accepted for forty days. Tawheed is very important in Islam because it is the pillar which Islam is built upon, as it is the first thing invited to and preached to for thirteen years. say, none has the right to be worshipped when an individual believes in Tawheed they have to believe in the three aspects of tawheed which are Ruboobiyah- in his lordship, Uloohiyyah- in his worship and finally Asma was sifaat believing in his Names and Attributes. Tawheed is a condition for an action to be accepted, because for a deed to be accepted it requires two conditions. Which is the intention which is purely for Allah and in accordance with the shareeah of Prophet Muhammad. The three categories of Tawheed in Islam that are very important to abide by which are Tawheed Ruboobeeyah which means maintaining the oneness of Lordship that is, affirming that Allah is one, without partners in his power, as Allah states in the Quran And no calamity strikes except by Allahs permission. This means that without Allahs permission no one can do anything. Second one is Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat which means maintaining the unity of Allahs Names and Attributes that is, affirming that they are incomparable and unique as Allah says in the Quran for Muslims that There is nothing like him. This means that Allahs attributes are different to his mankind. And lastly its Tawheed Uloohiyyah which is affirming that Allah is alone in his right to be worshipped, as it says in the Quran I did not create the jinn and mankind except for my worship. Surah Ikhlas is a one of the important chapter from the holy Quran as it declares the oneness of Allah and absolute nature of divine essences. This concept is presented in the first verse it says He is Allah, the One and Only moreover the second verse that Allah is Eternal, i.e., He is beyond the bounds of time and space which is Allah, the Eternal, Absolute The third verse describes that Allah does not give birth or was given birth to as it says He begetteth not nor is He begotten and the last verse declares that Allah is beyond comparison which is And there is none like unto Him. Surah Ikhlas directly supports the first declaration shahadah of Islam: There is no god but Allah. In this context, Islam is based on belief in one God which is monotheism. There are many Muslims that still depend on pious people that they believe have similar qualities to God. They put their whole trust in them and act upon what they tell them to do rather then following the Quran and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad. They might start to wear amulets as they might believe that these things will protect them from harm and guide them the right path. However all this is wrong as we know that from the words of the Prophet, as he says wearing amulets is an act of Shirk (polytheism). Other Muslims put the Prophet on a higher level than Allah and see him as their God rather than Allah; they give excessive praise to the Prophet. Shirk is the major sin in Islam because it involves associating others along with Allah in worship, his lordship or in his attributes. Being thankful to other than Allah for all the good which he has given us, or to say that He has an equal or one who is similar to him, shirk can also involve rejecting the Messengers of Allah since the Messengers of Allah call against shirk and whoever associates partners with Allah will never enter paradise as Allah says in the Quran Indeed they do blaspheme those who say that Allah is Jesus, the son of Mary, but Jesus said O children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Whoever joins other gods with Allah, Allah will forbid him heaven and the fire will be his abode. (5:72) There are many dangers of Shirk such as it wipes away an individuals good deeds, Muslims know this because it says in the Quran But if they were to join others with Allah in worship, all that they used to do would be of no benefit to them. (6:88) It also leads to eternal punishment in the hellfire and takes a person out of the fold of Islam as it says Whoever joins other gods with Allah, Allah will forbid him heaven and the fire will be his abode. When someone commits Shirk they are going against the belief in Tawheed which is the foundation of ones faith. Islam has 7 articles of faith among others the most important one is believe in Allah as the only one God. The principle of oneness in Allah was planted since Adam and Eve continued to Nuh, Abraham and up to the final Prophet Muhammad.
Friday, February 28, 2020
A Cry from the Grave by Leslie Woodhead - Essay Example This mass killing is indeed a very horrible and a very traumatic occurrence in Bosnia. The experience of Bosnian Muslims during the period of war is of course a tragic one. Nobody except the Bosnian community could understand what it was like to be there in a place where it had seemed that death was the only thing that could happen to them at the end of the day. Nonetheless, the documentary Ã¢â¬Å"A Cry from the GraveÃ¢â¬ which has captured the dread and terror of the hour by hour story of the July 1995 Srebrenica genocide during the Bosnian war conveys a message that even if the war is over, it is not enough because there were more than 80,000 Bosnian Muslim who were still crying for justice from their graves. The images from video clippings of the camcorder and from the photographs of the Bosnian war, without a doubt, served a function of being the strongest element in the documentary itself to express that disastrous incident. Images of people seeking for refuge, images of peop le trying to escape their danger from the Serbian forces, images of people wounded, and the images of people killed have captured and covered not only the Bosnian genocide but can also elicit sentiments of sorrow, grief and fear from the testimonies of the survivors of the said war. The Bosnian war had all begun when the Bosnian Serbs attacked the lands where the Bosnian Muslims were residing. They attacked such zones in order to secure the SerbÃ¢â¬â¢s territory. This was followed by Ã¢â¬Å"ethnic cleansingÃ¢â¬ . The Serbian forces systematically eliminated the Muslim population within their territory. They separated the men from the women and children. Some of them were forced to escape the zones which the Serbs had considered to own. Nonetheless, this also resulted to thousands of deaths among the Bosnian Muslims. In addition to that, the series of constant attacks made by the Serbian army had likewise resulted to thousands of killings. Meanwhile, the United Nation declared th at Srebrenica was a safe area in 1993. Nonetheless, two years later, this Ã¢â¬Å"safe areaÃ¢â¬ had started to deteriorate in 1995 and marked the beginning of the traumatic genocide. The documentary showed how those protecting the Bosnian Muslims had started to withdraw their support in Srebrenica. Basic resources including food and medicine, as well as the fuel and ammunition, had started to lowered. Bosniak civilians suffered from famishment. A few also had been killed because of starvation. The humanitarian situation of Bosnian Muslims turned to be the worst. It is the case that even the United Nation forces in the Srebrenica had been affected from such withdrawal of support. The United Nation forces were no longer patrolling using their means of transport but were just on foot as they guarded the enclaves. Likewise, from 600 Dutch soldiers, it had dropped to only 400. Moreover, the Serbian forces were now within their territory. Their forces had become stronger and stronger an d were out of control. On the one hand, the forces governing the safety of the Bosnian Muslim civilians had also lowered. Support from the air forces was also rejected. They were made to hope about the support which never had come. The situation had become worse and worse every single day for the lives of the Bosnian Muslims who all had their lives and nothing else. The situation was far from achieving a peaceful Srebrenica. What happened was an environment of total insecurity. There was no hope for the lives of the Bosnian Muslims in Srebrenica asking for refuge. The documentary had illustrated the thousands of refugees from Srebrenica gathered around in the compound of United
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Critically analyse the concept of ' fair and equitable treatment ' in investment treaties, taking into account recent investment - Essay Example In the context of international investment, inter-state negotiation, inter-governmental treaty drafting, diplomatic exchange, etc. have become frequent and critical. Naturally, the number of disputes between investors and host countries is increasing as well. Hence, the issue of fair and equitable treatment in international investment dealing is gaining momentum very rapidly. There is a need to urge the different countries of the world to avoid activities like confiscation, expropriation, discrimination, etc. in regards of the foreign investors and the objective can be achieved if and only if the basic principles of mutual respect are legally defined and incorporated in the treaty frameworks. This paper is developed through a literature review followed by an analysis phase which will critically evaluate the importance of fair and equitable treatment in relation to the recent trends of investment treaties and the different related arbitration cases. Arbitration case examples have been appended after the analysis, followed by a viable conclusion. The paper also aims to comprehend the present trends in the light of the older developments which have shaped up todayÃ¢â¬â¢s international investment scenario. ... ovide and ensure Ã¢â¬Å"fair and equitable treatmentÃ¢â¬ is generally put forward, along with certain other standards, as component of protection for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) by the host countries. It is a non-contingent and absolute treatment standard which states that the treatment would be executed in such terms whose exact meanings are well defined, by the means of references to certain situations of application. The Ã¢â¬Å"relativeÃ¢â¬ standards specified in Ã¢â¬Å"national treatmentÃ¢â¬ are not of primary importance in this regard. The standards to determine fair and equitable treatment were developed through multilateral investment and trade instruments, and with the increasing numbers of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs), these standards became more critical and debated. Ã¢â¬Å"The obligation of the parties to investment agreements to provide to each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s investments fair and equitable treatment has been given various interpretations by government al officials, arbitrators and scholars.Ã¢â¬ 1 Thus the backdrop of analysis of the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"fair and equitable treatmentÃ¢â¬ must be based on the literature that describes the trends of international investment law. Ã¢â¬Å"International investment law is one of the fastest-growing areas of international law today. Only a decade ago, the current surge in investorÃ¢â¬âstate arbitrations, having cumulated in approximately 300 investment treaty disputes,Ã 1Ã was beyond imagination. At the same time, investment treaties enshrine principles of international investment law, rather than hard and fast rules. Almost unavoidably, international investment law therefore became coined more by the dispute settlement activities of arbitral tribunals which entertain claims between foreign investors and host states brought under investment
Friday, January 31, 2020
Council Responsible for Genetics Essay The Council for Responsible Genetics (CRG) is a non-profit NGO with a focus on biotechnology , the Council for Responsible Genetics was founded in 1983 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. An early voice concerned about the social and ethical implications of modern genetic technologies, CRG organized a 1985 Congressional Briefing and a 1986 panel of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, both focusing on the potential dangers of genetically engineered biological weapons. Francis Boyle was asked to draft legislation setting limits on the use of genetic engineering, leading to the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989. CRG was the first organization to compile documented cases of genetic discrimination, laying the intellectual groundwork for the Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act of 2008 (GINA). The organization created both a Genetic Bill of Rights and a Citizens Guide to Genetically Modified Food. Also notable are CRGs support for the Safe Seeds Campaign (for avoiding gene flow from genetically engineered to non-GE seed) and the organization of a US conference on Forensic DNA Databanks and Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System. In 2010 CRG led a successful campaign to roll back a controversial student genetic testing program at the University of California, Berkeley. In 2011, CRG led a campaign to successfully enact (GINA) in California which extended genetic privacy and non-discrimination protections to life, disability and long term care insurance, mortgages, lending and other areas. The Peoples Petition The Peoples Petition was an online campaign to express support for medical experimentation using animals in the United Kingdom. Within a year of launch the number of signatures exceeded 21,850 and included Tony Blair, the then-serving Prime Minister. By 13 May, the petition had recorded 13,000 signatures. The following day, in the wake of publicity around a number of acts of intimidation by animal rights activists, then British Prime Minister Tony Blair announced in the Sunday Telegraph, that he intended to add his name to the petition. As an unusual move for a serving politician, Blair described his intention as a sign of just how important I believe it is that as many people as possible stand up against the tiny group of extremists threatening medical research and advances in the UK. The petition offered the opportunity for individuals of any age or place of residence to express support for three assertions: * Medical research is essential for developing safe and effective medical and veterinary treatments, requiring some studies using animals. * Where there is no alternative available, medical research using animals should continue in the UK. * People involved in medical research using animals have a right to work and live without fear of intimidation or attack.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Individualism Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Many characteristics may create oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individualism. Personality, appearance, environment, and heredity are the characteristics that make up oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality. One can control the individual he may become with the help of individualism. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Personality is a characteristic that plays a major role in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality. Ã¢â¬Å"One has many parts that make up his personalityÃ¢â¬ (Kramer 27). One may show these parts in different ways. There are a variety of personalities that one can have. If one wants others to see him as fun, he must have a fun and joyful personality. If one has an outgoing personality, one may have many friends and have a very social life. Many times a person can be judged by his personality. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality may vary from day to day. One should always try to express the most unique personality possible. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã OneÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance can clearly define oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance can be controlled to a certain extent. A person can truly express his individualism through his appearance. The color of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s hair, skin, and eyes can be changed to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s liking. The way a person looks can determine many things throughout his life. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The environment in which one lives may greatly affect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality. Ã¢â¬Å"The people and things around one affect how one may feel about oneselfÃ¢â¬ (Kramer 12-13). His environment also affects the way a person behaves. The people and things that are around one could affect how one feels and thinks about oneself. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s environment can be controlled. If one is not happy in his environment, he can find a more suitable place to live. In several ways, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment can determine who one will become in the future. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Heredity is a characteristic that helps determine oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individualism. Heredity controls features like the color of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s hair, eyes, and skin. The way one is seen as a person could be determined because of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s heredity. One may not be accepted or he may even be stereotyped by his heredity. Heredity is a characteristic that cannot be changed or altered.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Pat comes home after being at a mental facility into the care of his mother Dolores and his father Pat Sr. after eight months of treatment for bipolar disorder. He returns home with a hard set goal in mind. He will do whatever it takes in order to win his wife Nikki back, who currently has a restraining order against him. While visiting at a friends house Pat meets Tiffany, a recent widow and fellow neurosis sufferer. Tiffany is the key to Pat learning to move forward and away from his past, but Tiffany herself as many issues to work through.When we first meet Tittany it is clear that while sne is still troubled and broken, sne is determined to move forward in life and forgive her own mistakes. She has learned to accept herself at this point, flaws and all, even if she doesn't necessarily have a great opinion of herself. Tiffany is an extremely strong woman though. She has accepted herself and therefore refuses to apologize or make excuses for her sadness and what actions manifest fr om it. Tiffany has sunken into a deep depression following the death of her husband.The movie gave a detailed look into Tiffanys illness, and yet never outright names what can be deduced as depression. The movie alludes that there is something besides depression that plagues her. It tells of the side effect, which with Tiffany suffers the most from. The disorder instigates her sex drive to turn on and off. Just before her husbands passing this was negatively affecting her marriage. Following his death, Tiffany misguides her guilt into a self-absorbed lifestyle of promiscuity. Preceding the movie, Tiffany is fired from her Job for having ex with everyone she works with.It is shown in the movie how men still show up at her parent's front door in attempts to Ã¢â¬Å"get-togetherÃ¢â¬ with her. Her family suffers from the shame as the town garners glaring repugnance towards Tiffanys actions. We are shown the pained and humiliated looks on her parent's faces as her Ã¢â¬Å"suitorsÃ¢â¬ come knocking at their door looking for her. Tiffany still goes about her business in a completely unabashed way which emphasizes the chronic emptiness that has been consuming her. It is when Pat witnesses what these men are there for that something s done about it.This scene depicts Pats reaction, in which he sends them away and is outraged that these men could seek to use this nice girl for their own gratification. As Tiffany eavesdrops she observes Pats high opinion of her, which is something she hasn't had for awhile and his regard for her advances her own for herself. As mentioned earlier Tiffany shows apparent symptoms of depression. Even before the death of her husband she was suffering from the DSM-IV TR symptoms of depressed mood and a decreased interest and pleasure, which had greatly affected her marriage.But it is her subsequent actions that make us seek another diagnosis. As Tiffany opens up to Pat we learn that she has a history of extreme emotional reactions, unstabl e interpersonal relationships, difficulty controlling anger, and impulsive sexual activity. These are DSM-IV criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder. Depression and Borderline Personality Disorder do work hand and hand, so the comorbidity of these disorders is not surprising. There is a scene between Pat and Tiffany where Tiffany plainly demonstrates the act of Ã¢â¬Å"splittingÃ¢â¬ .Splitting is also alled black and white thinking, which is when a person with Borderline Personality Disorder can only see things as an ideal or the epitome of wrong with no leeway in- between. Identity Disturbance is one of the nine criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder in the DSM-IV and is apparent in Tiffany. The way that she reacts after hearing Pats opinion of her, allows a look in to the distorted and bleak self-view that she has of herself. She becomes close to Pat and the movie depicts how she avoids any possibility that Pat could get back with his ex wife.She doesn't want to risk h im bandoning her. This frantic effort to avoid abandonment is yet another criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder. She is open with Pat about how she has been on medication and how she is in therapy, but right up to the end of the movie we are still lett witn a sense that Tittany still needs a lot ot work to get to a healthy place. Long-term Psychotherapy is generally the clearest route to take when it comes to Borderline Personality Disorder.Medications also help with these disorders by tackling comorbid depression with antidepressants, the paranoia with antianxiety edications and the use of mood stabilizers to help with impulsions and anger. It is said that the medications should be directed at the comorbid symptoms rather than at the borderline personality disorder and its own symptoms, as it is unnecessary to treat the disorder with medication on its own. So in the case of Tiffany I believe it is prudent to medicate her but have the medication be directed at her depression in hopes to stabilize her moods.I agree with the fact that she has been on medication, but I do believe that intense psychotherapy for her Borderline Personality Disorder is eeded. The movie may have ended happy but she still needs a lot of work in terms of how she processes and regulates her emotions. Dialectal Behavioral Therapy is a form of Psychotherapy that focuses in on regulation of emotions through Cognitive Behavioral techniques. The therapy combines the Cognitive Behavior Techniques which help emotions regulation and Reality Testing which focuses on distress tolerance, acceptance and mindful awareness. It is a therapy derived from Buddhist meditation.I believe that the two components of this therapy, individual and group, ill benefit Tiffany in the way of her becoming mindful of others and accepting of herself. It is the most effective form of treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder today and therefore is what I would suggest in regards to long-term therapy for Tiffa ny. The movie leaves us with open eyes toward the idiosyncrasies in people. It highlights how common mental illness is in the eccentrics of its entire cast. The movie brings awareness to mental health issues and portrays Just how frequent and wide-ranging disorders are.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Article 21.2 permits investors to opt for international arbitration after pursuing remedies in domestic courts, but not to engage in local remedies during or subsequent to investment arbitration. If the investor submits a claim to international arbitration, it must waive its rights to continue or initiate a claim based on the same measure in domestic courts. This means domestic courts have the opportunity to provide redress for wrongs before they are raised at the international level. Investors may continue or initiate claims at the domestic level following submission of a claim at international level in cases where the investor seeks Ã¢â¬Å"injunctive, declaratory or other extraordinary relief.Ã¢â¬ This waiver clause is contained in many BITs andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, the provision serves an important purpose, which is to limit duplicative decisions on the same issue. This purpose is evident in the decisions of tribunals, which will now be examined. In Waste Management v United Mexican States, following a dispute between the investor and the government of Mexico, the investor filed the claim and supplied a waiver which included a sentence that stated that the waiver did not apply to any ongoing dispute in domestic courts surrounding violations of law other than NAFTA, including Mexican law. Mexico pointed to ongoing legal proceedings in domestic Mexican courts and argued that the waiver was insufficient. The investor countered that scope of the waiver is limited to NAFTA, and thus it was not required to abandon domestic proceedings based on a violation of domestic law. The tribunal rejected this argument and acknowledged that while it might be possible in some instances for proceedings to exist at domestic level that did not relate to those in NAFTA arbitration, the tribunal found that in this case, the different claims were based on the same measure. Because the purpose of the waiver is to prevent Ã¢â¬Å"double benefitÃ¢â¬ for the same measure, the tribunal found that the